klassieker: Goya (1971)


Goya – oder der Arge Weg der Erkenntnis
DDR 1971, 136 min.
regie: Konrad Wolf
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0067155/

 
1. De verfilming van de roman
Deze biografische film is gebaseerd op de roman van Lion Feuchtwanger (1884-1958). Feuchtwanger begon in 1943 te schrijven aan deze roman, hij was toen net in Amerika aangekomen, gevlucht voor de nazi’s. De roman werd in 1951 door een Amerikaanse uitgeverij  gepubliceerd in 1951, met als titel This is the Hour: a Novel about Goya.
 
De roman is een karakterstudie van de schilder Goya en een reflectie op het vak van schilderkunst. Via het leven van Goya en de schandalen rond zijn werk en zijn affaires met vrouwen geeft Feuchtwanger een impressie van het leven in de 18e eeuw in Madrid in adellijke kringen en aan het koninklijk hof. Hij schildert de historische politieke realiteit (onder andere de wrede oorlog met Frankrijk) en toont een duidelijke afschuw voor de RK inquisitie, die beschreven wordt als een gruwelijk relict uit de Middeleeuwen, verstrikt in een verstarde onverdraagzaamheid. Feuchtwanger dacht hierbij aan de heksenjacht van McCarthy, waar hij als links intellectueel ook last van had. Konrad Wolf dacht mogelijk aan de DDR partij tirranie of de Sovjet staatsterreur. Wij denken aan de fundamentalisten van IS. De roman is een parabel waar je veel kanten mee op kan.
 
The film is based on Lion Feuchtwanger’s book about Goya, chronicling the years in the painter’s life when he went from a celebrated court painter to an enemy of the church—roughly from 1789 to 1803. At the beginning of the story, Goya is perfectly happy to be a pawn in the game that people in power played with the public. It is only after a series of tragic events that he comes to realize that these people are not worthy of admiration and he begins to evolve as a painter. Lion Feuchtwanger wrote the book in response to the anti-communist trials that were being held by Senator Joseph McCarthy in Washington.”
Bron: http://eastgermancinema.com/2012/02/08/goya/
 
Documentatie over Feuchtwanger:
 
 
2. Een aantal feiten rondom de film
De film is opgenomen op het brede formaat van 70mm, het was een dure prestige co-productie van de filmstudio DEFA (DDR) en Lenfilm (Sovjet-Unie). De oorspronkelijke lengte van de tweedelige film was bij de wereldpremière op het internationale filmfestival van Moskou 166 minuten. De film werd bekroond met de Jury Prijs. Regisseur Konrad Wolf heeft daarna zelf de film teruggebracht tot 134 minuten. Het resultaat is dat er een aantal abrupte overgangen in het levensverhaal te signaleren zijn.
 
De Litouwse acteur Donatas Banionis vertolkt de hoofdrol. We kennen deze indrukwekkende theateracteur uit de film Solaris (Andrei Tarkovsky, 1972). Hij werkte nogmaals samen met Konrad Wolf bij de oorlogsfilm Mama, Ich Lebe (1977).
 
·       Het duo filmcomponisten
The music for the film was composed by the Azerbaijani composers Kara Karayev and his son, Faradsh. The Karayevs were trained as classical musicians, and Goya has an outstanding score. It could be played by an orchestra without any reference to the film and it would impress people. It is richly textured and classically structured, while at the same time experimental with many unexpected touches, such as the frenetic solo organ piece used to reflect Goya’s inner turmoil. The elder Karayev wrote over 100 pieces of music, including ballets, symphonies, and chamber pieces. Today, his work is still performed around the world and an annual festival in his honor is held every April in Baku, Azerbaijan. Goya was one of his last film scores. He died in 1982. Faradsh Karayev has gone on to become a well-respected composer in his own right, having composed almost as many pieces as his father at this point.”
Bron: http://eastgermancinema.com/2012/02/08/goya/
 
·       Het duo cameralieden
As with most of Konrad Wolf’s films—at least until Solo Sunny—the cinematographer was Werner Bergmann. This time, however, he was assisted by the Russian cinematographer, Konstantin Ryzhov. These two men have very different styles of filming. Bergmann often used a freer, hand-held technique. This was especially impressive considering he had lost one arm during the war. To compensate, Bergmann devised a special sling mount for his camera. Ryzhov, on the other had, seemed to prefer the more traditional, tripod-mounted approach, which was particularly well-suited to convey the opulence of the ballroom scenes. It is fun to watch the film with this in mind and try and guess which cinematographer handled which scenes.”
Bron: http://eastgermancinema.com/2012/02/08/goya/
 
“The film opens in the 1790s with Goya already an established painter, with a firm reputation with the royal court and the aristocracy. The impact of the French Revolution is leading to a growth of liberal and republican ideals. Goya is shown to have sympathy with these but he is also careful to avoid being identified with radicals. The powerful religious Inquisition suppresses any and all political, social and personal radicalism. Both Goya’s famous prints and paintings get close attention from this censorious body. However, 1808 sees the French liberation / occupation of Spain and the development of guerrilla warfare by the Spanish people. After 1815 the monarchy is restored in the person of Ferdinand VII. Reaction, including the Inquisition, returns. In the 1920s, already partially retired, Goya moves to France.
The film mixes the social situations of the time, Goya’s public persona as a famous artist, and his rather chaotic personal life. This includes a severe illness in the early 1890s, which left him partially blind for a period and deaf for the rest of his life [the latter is underplayed]. His sexual life includes a wife and two children and a long-running affair with the Duchess of Alba.
 
Apparently the production team of the film reproduced 300 of Goya’s famous paintings and prints. The focus in the film is on a select few works, which are key achievements in his output.
The 1790s is the period of his famous portraits, and in particular his large canvas, The family of Charles 1V. At the same time he is involved in producing a series of prints sold as sets of etchings Los Caprichos. These are bizarre, menacing and even morbid, and are one of the works that incurred the displeasure of the Inquisition.
His relationship with the Duchess of Alba leads to the famous Naked Maja. It also includes a lovely scene where the Duchess visits his studio and thoughtfully drapes her mantilla over the face of a statue of the Virgin Mary.
The period of war naturally focuses on the two great works, The Second of May, 1808 and The Third of May, 1808. Revolutionary fervour and brutal suppression are captured in these great paintings. And there are the further series of etchings The Disasters of War, dark, violent and intensely grotesque.
The paintings and the settings are both beautifully lit and framed, and the sets and costumes are done in great style. But it is the filmic style, which gives the greatest potency. Wolf uses frequent montage, both visual and aural. In both cases the techniques are in line with the ideas of 1920 Soviet directors and also the post-silent Sound Manifesto. The clash of images and sounds dramatises both the emotional life of Goya [and his deafness], but also the impact of great and powerful social events on him and his society.
 
Intriguingly the films theme would seem to offer allegorical comments on three different situations. Released in 1971 the tale of Goya’s life under the royal autocracy provides a parallel to the dictatorship in Spain of Franco and his fascist regime. However, the work of the Inquisition, which includes a public ‘show trial’ of repentant sinners, would seem to equally comment on the Soviet Union in the 1930s. Whilst the paranoia induced in the film by the surveillance of the Inquisition would seem to be an oblique comment on the DDR itself. How much of this was fully intentional can be debated.”
Bron: https://cinepages.wordpress.com/2011/04/11/goya-–-or-the-hard-way-to-enlightenment/
 
Documentatie over de film
 
3. De historische figuur Goya
De Spaanse schildermeester Francisco Goya (1746-1828) was verbonden aan de hofhouding van koning Carlos IV. Hij verwierf hier welvaart en een grote reputatie, maar hij maakt ook satirische schetsen en gravures (Los Caprichos). Hij eindigt zijn oeuvre met een serie van ‘zwarte schilderijen’, lugubere nachtmerries vol groteske demonen.
 
De historische feiten worden in de film aangepast om tot een verhaal te komen over Goya als een eigenzinnige en weerbarstige kunstenaar, die als hofschilder onderdeel is van de onrechtvaardige machtstructuren maar die zich ook doet kennen als een kritische waarnemer van de feodale macht van de koning en de terreur van de katholieke kerk. Zo komt hij ook in botsing met de Inquisitie. Zijn schilderijen tonen een grimmig wereldbeeld, zijn statieportretten zijn ook psychologische analyses.
 
Documentatie over Francisco Goya:
 
Vergelijk - andere speelfilms over Goya: